While data is starting to play an increasingly important role in the interactive products we design for, it is not yet so present in our design processes. Our PhD research explores, through different designerly case studies in industry, how data can become part of the creative process. Through reflections on these case studies we have defined and developed a data-enabled design approach to designing data-intensive products.
Data-enabled design sets out to use data, from situated design experiments, as creative material to inspire and inform the design process from early stages. Through a combination of sensor data and qualitative methods, a detailed and nuanced understanding of context, behavior and related experiences is developed. This enables us to remotely build empathic understanding through the data; that we in this way see more as qualitative material than as quantitative.
As designers, this ability to continuously gain new insights that spark our creativity, triggered the question how we can also continuously do remote design interventions to further expand on our insights. The case studies we present show an essential role for an open and flexible set of prototypes (e.g. physical prototypes, digital prototypes, apps, data dashboards) to facilitate these explorations. This dynamic and flexible set of tools we named a data-enabled canvas. Hereby, field studies are no longer static means of inquiry but have become active (situated) explorations. This makes data-enabled design significantly different from a more well-known data-driven design approach, which uses data as evidence to base or evaluate design decisions.
Through multiple case studies, executed at Philips Design, a two-step approach is formalized and further expanded on. The first - contextual - step of data-enabled design sets out to gain contextualized understanding of the design space. It is an open exploration, resulting in a collection of anecdotes, details and nuances and design opportunities that give a better understanding of the design space. These further inform and inspire the scope of the second step.
The second - informed - step, sets out to iteratively design while the prototype(s) stay in the field. The informed step introduces an open and dynamic set of tools that can be further shaped based on remotely collected insights. The contextual step is instrumental in shaping the data-enabled canvas so that it allows for a variety of on-the-fly design explorations in this step. These explorations, we refer to as situated explorations, forward design narratives that describe how our insight-design interventions have iteratively resulted in a number of design concepts.
More simply put, by collecting and showing data to participants the design team get new ideas. From a distance, they can quickly update elements of the data-enabled design canvas to embody these ideas, so participants can experience them. These again trigger new questions or ideas for participants and researchers. This way one can keep exploring continuously remotely.
The definition and development of Data-enabled design are the PhD work of:
ir. Janne van Kollenburg - Philips Design & Eindhoven University of Technology
-- janne.van.kollenburg [at] philips.com
ir. Sander Bogers - Eindhoven University of Technology & Philips Design
-- sander.bogers [at] philips.com
Prof. dr. ir. Caroline Hummels - Eindhoven University of Technology
dr. ir. Joep Frens - Eindhoven University of Technology
dr. ir. Eva Deckers - Philips Design
Philips Design, University of Technology Eindhoven and Maxima Medical Center Veldhoven
Through observational studies, diaries and lab studies, Philips has developed extensive knowledge about baby bottle feeding. This was the first project in which we explored how data can be used as creative material for design. As a starting point, we created a sensor-equipped bottle, which data could give insight into usage and routines, for a longer period of time, in the real context of use. We combined this data with more experiential data from interviews and diary studies to understand it while being able to translate it to contextual, behavioral and experiential data. The first - contextual - showed that this data was not only relevant to us as designers, to inspire and inform our design decisions, but also participants were interested in how it could help them in improving their bottle-feeding experience. Now that the data offered us the potential to continuously gain insight remotely, we set out to also execute design interventions continuously and remotely. Do to so, we designed a data-enabled design canvas. An open and flexible set of tools (both in hardware and software) that facilitate us as designers to quickly act on situated insights. Through situated explorations in the informed step, we designed a connected baby bottle that gave parents insights into their feeding routines and gave highly personalized insights and device based on the data. Through our data-enabled design approach, we managed to give highly personalized attention to our participants that is clearly reflected in the outcomes. The Avent Smart Baby Bottle Sleeve was presented at CES 2017, CES 2018 and IFA 2017 and is on the roadmap for product release.
– Sander Bogers, Joep Frens, Janne van Kollenburg, Eva Deckers, Caroline Hummels. 2016. Connected Baby Bottle: A design case study towards a framework for data-enabled design. In proceedings of the Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS'16), 301-311.
In 2016 Philips released uGrow, the first medical grade baby tracker app. Parents could use this app to for example keep track of their baby's growth, sleep, feeding moments and diaper changes. With the medical nature of this app, the question arises how this parent-tracked data can also be relevant for healthcare professionals. In interviews with healthcare professionals from the Netherlands and the USA, we struggled to go beyond obvious use cases and concerns acquainted with this design challenge. To build on hands-on experiences and use cases, we set up a data-enabled design experiment, where three healthcare professionals from different levels of care (preventative care nurse, general practitioner, pediatrician) were connected to 2 families each. For the families, we designed a physical data tracking toolkit, that offered an open-ended means to discuss with their healthcare professional what data could be valuable to collect in their specific use cases. This resulted in an extensive collection of insights, opportunities and limitations for the use of data in this context. Through our continuous and situated design explorations, we created and expanded on two design concepts. The first - My Care Question - is a solution for lower levels of care (i.e. preventative care). The parents can ask their healthcare professional a question through the system, to which data can be added to provide a more detailed understanding. The second - Care Paths - is designed for higher levels of care. The professional can trigger 'Care Paths' that define what data can be collected as valuable input for him. For example, a reflux (spitting up) care path could ask parents to keep track of feeding moments, spitting up and crying. These two design concepts were iteratively developed, while the prototypes stayed in context. This case study was instrumental in giving direction to the professional endeavors of the Philips Avent Business.
– Janne van Kollenburg, Sander Bogers, Heleen Rutjes, Eva Deckers, Joep Frens, Caroline Hummels 2018. Exploring the Value of Parent-Tracked Baby Data in Interactions with Healthcare Professionals: A Data-Enabled Design Exploration. In proceedings of the Conference on Computer Human Interaction (CHI'18).
At the Designing Interactive Systems (DIS) conference 2016, we facilitated the workshop 'A Situated Exploration of Rich Interactions'. Participants were asked to design rich interactions for an experience catcher; a device capturing visual experiences in 6-second image sequences. In the contextual step, participants used by us pre-made catchers in-situ, which collected data that was displayed on a dashboard. Hereafter they co-explored each other's data through interviews. Next, in the informed step, they designed new experience catchers for each other, making them experience specific, informed and inspired by the data. Again, participants went out and used the experience catchers, to capture new experiences with these personalized catchers. The data from those experiences was used to corroborate and deepen design insights.
– Sander Bogers, Janne van Kollenburg, Joep Frens and Tom Djajadiningrat. 2016. Data-Enabled-Design, a Situated Exploration of Rich Interactions. In proceedings of the Conference Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS'16), 45-48.
Sander Bogers, Janne van Kollenburg, Eva Deckers, Joep Frens, Caroline Hummels. 2018. A Situated Exploration of Designing for Personal Health Ecosystems through Data-enabled Design. In Proceedings of the Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS'18).
Sander Bogers, Janne van Kollenburg, Heleen Rutjes, Eva Deckers, Joep Frens and Caroline Hummels. 2018. A Showcase of Data-enabled Design Explorations. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'18).
Janne van Kollenburg, Sander Bogers, Heleen Rutjes, Eva Deckers, Joep Frens and Caroline Hummels. 2018. Exploring the Value of Parent-Tracked Baby Data in Interactions with Healthcare Professionals: A Data-Enabled Design Exploration. In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'18). Honorable Mention
Mart Wetzels, Idowu Ayoola, Sander Bogers, Peter Peters, Wei Chen and Loe Feijs. 2018. Consume: A privacy-preserving authorisation and authentication service for connecting with health and wellbeing APIs. Pervasive and Mobile Computing, 43, 20-26.
Heleen Rutjes, Martijn Willemsen, Janne van Kollenburg, Sander Bogers and Wijnand IJsselsteijn. 2017. Benefits and costs of patient generated data, from the clinician's and patient's perspective, In Workshop 'Leveraging Patient-Generated Data for Collaborative Decision Making in Healthcare' at Pervasive Health 2017.
Janne van Kollenburg, Sander Bogers, Eva Deckers, Joep Frens and Caroline Hummels. 2017. How design-inclusive UXR influenced the integration of project activities. Three design cases from industry. In proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'17) 1408-1418.
Sander Bogers, Carl Megens and Steven Vos. 2017. Design for Balanced Engagement in Mixed Level Sports Teams. In Proceedings of the CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 994-1002.
Janne van Kollenburg, Jeedella Jeedella., Peter van Kollenburg and Sotirios Kargas. 2017. Towards a new curriculum to support the changing front-end innovation landscape. In Proceedings of the 45th SEFI European Society of Engineering Education Conference, 1313-1321
William Odom, Tom Jenkins, Kristina Andersen, Bill Gaver, James Pierce, Anna Vallgarda, Andy Boucher, David Chatting, Janne van Kollenburg, and Kevin Lefeuvre. 2017. Crafting a place for attending to the things of design at CHI. In Interactions 25(1), 52-57.
Sander Bogers and Janne van Kollenburg. 2017. 90 Years of Philips Design: from designing advertisement to designing for ecosystems with data - Interview Paul Gardien, Vice President Philips Design. In Iterations 5, 30-33.
Sander Bogers, Joep Frens, Janne van Kollenburg, Eva Deckers and Caroline Hummels. 2016. Connected Baby Bottle: A design case study towards a framework for data-enabled design. In Proceedings of the Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS'16), 301-311.
Sander Bogers, Janne van Kollenburg, Joep Frens and Tom Djajadiningrat. 2016. Data-Enabled-Design, a Situated Exploration of Rich Interactions. In Proceedings of the Conference Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS'16), 45-48.
Xipei Ren, Lu Yuan, Aarnout Brombacher and Sander Bogers 2016. Mind the gap: probing exertion experience with experiential design landscapes. In Proceedings of the 20th Academic Design Management Conference ADMC16, 999-1017.
Paul Gardien, Eva Deckers, Gavin Proctor and Janne van Kollenburg. 2016. The Academic Creative Lab. In Proceedings of the 20th Academic Design Management Conference ADMC16, 999-1017.
Loes van Renswouw, Sander Bogers and Steven Vos. 2016. Urban planning for active and healthy public spaces with user-generated big data. In Proceedings of the Conference on Data for Policy 2016.
Janne van Kollenburg, Eva Deckers, Paul Gardien and Caroline Hummels. 2015. People research for eco-system propositions: a theoretical framework towards the future of interaction design. In Proceedings of the Conference on Design and Semantics of Form and Movement (DeSForM'15), 102-110.
Jelle Stienstra, Sander Bogers and Joep Frens. 2015. Designerly Handles: Dynamic and Contextualized Enablers for Interaction Designers. In Proceedings of the Conference on Design and Semantics of Form and Movement (DeSForM'15), 86-94.
Sander Bogers, Carl Megens, Michel Peeters and Caroline Hummels. 2014. Bouncers : exploring daily activity in society. In Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, 79.
Janne van Kollenburg, Sander Bogers, Berkay Buharali and Peter Lovei. 2016. Infant Feeding System. Publication number : WO2017186504 A1. Koninklijke Philips N.V.